Fiscal Instruments

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The Sustainable Asset Valuation Facility can identify and price the broader co-benefits that sustainable infrastructure brings to a domestic economy, including enhanced GDP, avoided spending on pollution clean-up and public health services, job creation, opportunities to up-skill, and much more.
The Experimental Ecosystem Accounting in Uganda project generated a set of natural capital accounts for Uganda that can support knowledge-based policy making for improved management of biodiversity and help monitor progress towards the Aichi Targets and the Sustainable Development Goals.

The GGKP Knowledge Partner, CDKN attended the Global Green Growth Week was held in Jeju, Republic of Korea, 5-9 September.

Although the private sector plays a vital role in the development and diffusion of new technologies, short-term financial planning practices create market failures that can hinder the expansion of green industries. Governments can use fiscal instruments to facilitate innovation, stimulate green markets, and help phase out environmentally or socially harmful activities.

The use of public spending, including green subsidies and carbon pricing, to leverage private investment can help to create the enabling conditions for a green economy. Meanwhile, fiscal incentives targeted at consumers can encourage them to shift their consumption patterns towards greener goods and services. Reforming or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies can also play an important role in the transition to a green economy. For instance, phasing out fossil fuel subsidies will discourage over-consumption and encourage higher energy efficiency while levelling the playing field for renewable energy investments.

The Green Fiscal Policy Network, a partnership between the IMF, GIZ and UNEP, provides useful resources, country profiles and case studies focusing on fiscal instruments in the context of green growth.

Relevance to the SDGs

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 12 on sustainable production and consumption calls for phasing out and restructuring environmentally-harmful subsidies in the fossil fuel industry.

SDG 12.c
Phasing out Subsidies


Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform and the Just Transition
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI), The Green Initiative
Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)

Learning Products

Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE)
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Emerging Markets Dialogue on Finance, Natural Capital Finance Alliance (NCFA), UN Environment Finance Initiative (UNEP FI), Global Canopy Programme (GCP)


Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN)
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Batumi Initiative on Green Economy (BIG-E)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)