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If urbanisation is one of the most important global trends of the 21st century, with some 70% of the world’s population forecasted to live in cities by 2050, then urbanisation in Africa – and the ways in which that growth occurs – marks one of the most significant opportunities for achieving glob

In November 2012 General Motors (GM) opened its new GM China Advanced Technical Center in Shanghai, as part of its global network of Research and Development (R&D) labs.

In this special edition of the GGKP "Insights" blog, Dr. Carlo Carraro, Dr. Suneel Pandey and Dr. Steven Stone, organizers of the GGKP's next Annual Conference, present the case for using fiscal policy to achieve economic, social and environmental goals - outlining the opportunities and challenges which exist in practice.

Although transport is central to the lives of people across the world, our dependence on fossil fuel-driven motor vehicles has generated a range of serious environmental, social, and economic costs. The sector currently emits nearly a quarter of the world’s energy-related CO2 and generates more than 75 per cent of the air pollution in urban areas (WRI, 2014), contributing to 3.7 million premature deaths in 2012. Moreover, with passenger travel expected to more than double, CO2 emissions from transport are expected to grow between 30 to 110 per cent (OECD, 2015).

Greening the transport sector can reduce congestion, air pollution, and improve wellbeing through better management and a shift away from fossil fuel combustion engines. It has the potential to create jobs through the development of public transport infrastructure and can help alleviate poverty by encouraging affordable transport and improving access to markets and other essential facilities.

Expert assistance on sustainable transportation policy is available for representatives of government agencies and to technical institutes supporting them through the LEDS Global Partnership Remote Expert Assistance on LEDS (REAL) service.

Relevance to SDGs

Sustainable Development Goal 11, specifically target 11.2, calls for sustainable transport and increased accessibility for all. In addition, SDG 9.1 calls for more reliable and resilient transport infrastructure.

SDG 9.1
Resilient Transport Infrastructure
   SDG 11.2
            Sustainable Transport            

Best Practices

Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), Green Growth Best Practice (GGBP)
Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), Green Growth Best Practice (GGBP)

Learning Products

Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), International Labour Organization (ILO), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), WWF
Iskandar Regional Development Authority (IRDA)


Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI)
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH