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May 2017
Nordic Council of Ministers

This report estimates fossil fuel subsidies to be around USD 425 billion. Such subsidies represent the large lost opportunities for governments to invest in renewable energy, energy efficiency and sustainable development.

October 2015
Nordic Council of Ministers

This report presents a model that analyses fossil fuel subsidy reform across 20 countries showing an average reduction in national GHG emissions of 11% by 2020, and average annual government savings of USD 93 per tonne of CO2 abated.