The paper Aligning Energy Development and Climate Objectives in Nationally Determined Contributions looks at how four specific developing countries are aligning their energy policies with their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), or missing key opportunities to do so, and it raises questions about how governments could do things differently.
The authors identify Ethiopia and Peru as examples of good practice in addressing energy emissions in their NDCs and consistency with national energy plans. Ethiopia intends to reduce its total emissions by 64% against a business-as-usual trajectory, while Peru aims to reduce emissions by 30% (both conditional on international support). Bangladesh and Ghana were selected as countries with relatively low ambition in their NDCs. Independent analysis of alternative emissions reduction pathways suggests that there is potential for both countries to submit more ambitious emissions reduction commitments, which would be consistent with their energy sector development goals. When development co-benefits are taken into consideration, such as job creation and improvements to health, the case for higher ambition is strengthened.
NDCs vary considerably in their level of ambition, the level of detail they provide and the depth of analysis underpinning their emissions reduction targets.