Sustainable development will strongly depend on the secure and safe availability of food, water, energy, and industrial raw materials, which will increasingly be based on renewable resources. In this rapidly evolving context, the fundamental challenge is to frame the reliance on biomass without undermining the long-term productivity of agriculture and other ecosystems, and also through providing opportunities for achieving win–win outcomes in terms of green and inclusive economic development, energy and food security for the poor. Bio-based energy is part of the inter-connected global bioeconomy. Prices of raw materials are increasing, driving higher the prices for energy and food, with subsequent “domino effects” on rising land and water prices. A parallel and connected development, increasing energy use in agriculture and emergence of biofuels in the past decade, has closely tied together food and energy prices.The main objective of this project is to provide evidence-based analytical support for national and international policies promoting technological and institutional innovations in the bio-economy, especially in developing countries. The project conducts trans-disciplinary research activities at two levels: global and local in carefully selected case study countries, constructed around the following specific activities: 1) informing the policy debate and dialogue, 2) conducting the global and national level analysis, 3) communication to increase awareness and action.