Source Information

Socio-Economic Context

GDP per capita

GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

Data source: The World Bank: GDP per capita (current US$) (NY.GDP.PCAP.CD): World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.

Population

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates.

Data source: The World Bank: Population, total (SP.POP.TOTL): (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.

Population density

Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometres. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.

Data source: The World Bank: Population density (people per sq. km of land area) (EN.POP.DNST): Food and Agriculture Organization and World Bank population estimates.

Unemployment

Unemployment refers to the share of the labour force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labour force and unemployment differ by country.

Data source: The World Bank: Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS): International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.

Gini index

The Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption expenditure among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality. The Gini coefficient for OECD countries is taken from the OECD while non-OECD data is from the World Bank, therefore intercountry comparisons are to be treated with particular caution.

Data source: The World Bank: GINI index (SI.POV.GINI): World Bank, Development Research Group. Government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Luxembourg Income Study database, and OECD:  Gini (at disposable income, post taxes and transfers): OECD Income Distribution database (IDD).

Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite measure of health, education and income to indicate the development stage of a country. The education component is measured on the basis of years of schooling, the health component through life expectancy at birth and the wealth component from GNI per capita in US$ (PPP). The scale of the index is from 0 to 1, where a low number indicates low measures of relative health, education and income and a high number indicates relatively high performance in these three areas.

Data source: UNDP: International Human Development Indicators: Human Development Index (HDI) value: HDRO calculations based on data from UNDESA (2011), Barro and Lee (2011), UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2012), World Bank (2012) and IMF (2012).

Natural Asset Base

Average annual deforestation

Average annual deforestation refers to the permanent conversion of natural forest area to other uses, including shifting cultivation, permanent agriculture, ranching, settlements, and infrastructure development. Deforested areas do not include areas logged but intended for regeneration or areas degraded by fuelwood gathering, acid precipitation, or forest fires. Negative numbers indicate an increase in forest area. The indicator is measured as the average annual percentage change in forest area during the last 10 years.

Data source: The World Bank: Annual deforestation (% of change) (ER.FST.DFST.ZG): Food and Agriculture Organization, Global Forest Resources Assessment.

Annual freshwater withdrawals per capita

Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes.

Data sources: The World Bank: Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (billion cubic meters) (ER.H2O.FWTL.K3): Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data. 

The World Bank: Population, total (SP.POP.TOTL): (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.

Agricultural land

Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.

Data source: The World Bank: Agricultural land (% of land area) (AG.LND.AGRI.ZS): Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.

Terrestrial and marine protected areas

Terrestrial protected areas are totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designated by national authorities as scientific reserves with limited public access, national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, protected landscapes, and areas managed mainly for sustainable use. Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Sites protected under local or provincial law are excluded.

Data source: The World Bank: Terrestrial and marine protected areas (% of total territorial area) (ER.PTD.TOTL.ZS): United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.

Environmental and Resource Productivity

CO2 emissions per capita

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

Data source: The World Bank: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) (EN.ATM.CO2E.PC): Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.

Carbon productivity

Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Carbon productivity is GDP/CO2 emissions and reflects aggregate efficiency of output with regard to carbon emissions, where GDP is measured in 2005 PPP US$.

Data source: The World Bank: CO2 emissions (kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP) (EN.ATM.CO2E.PP.GD.KD): Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.

Environmental Quality of Life

Population exposure to air pollution (PM2.5)

Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Annual average concentrations of greater than 10 micro-grams per cubic meter are known to be injurious to human health according to the WHO. The annual average exposure is weighted by the affected population. These data are derived from a model parameterized by MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and calculated as a country's annual average exposure to PM2.5 in micrograms per cubic meter.

Data source: Yale EPI data: Emerson, J.W., A. Hsu, M.A. Levy, A. de Sherbinin, V. Mara, D.C. Esty, and M. Jaiteh. 2012. 2012 Environmental Performance Index and Pilot Trend Environmental Performance Index. New Haven: Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy: Population weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5): Zell, E., and S. Weber. 2012. Country Estimates of PM2.5 Exposure. Arlington,VA: Battelle Memorial Institute.

Access to improved sanitation

Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population using improved sanitation facilities. The improved sanitation facilities include flush/pour flush (to piped sewer system, septic tank, pit latrine), ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine, pit latrine with slab, and composting toilet.

Data source: The World Bank: Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access) (SH.STA.ACSN): WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation (http://www.wssinfo.org/).

Access to improved water source

Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population using an improved drinking water source. The improved drinking water source includes piped water on premises (piped household water connection located inside the user’s dwelling, plot or yard), and other improved drinking water sources (public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection).

Data source: The World Bank: Improved water source (% of population with access) (SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS): WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation (http://www.wssinfo.org/).

Access to electricity

Access to electricity is the percentage of population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources.

Data source: The World Bank: Access to electricity (% of population) (EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS): International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook. (IEA Statistics © OECD/IEA, http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp).

Policies and economic opportunities

Fossil fuel consumption subsidies

The subsidies to fossil fuel consumption cover fossil fuels directly by end-users or consumed as inputs to electricity generation. They are estimated using the price-gap approach, which compares average end-use prices paid by consumers with reference prices that correspond to the full cost of supply. The methodology is sensitive to the calculation of reference prices. For oil products, natural gas and coal, reference prices are the sum of the international market price, adjusted for quality differences where applicable, the costs of freight and insurance and internal distribution, and any value-added tax. Electricity reference prices are based on the average annual cost of production, which depends on the make up of generating capacity, the unsubsidised cost of fossil-fuel inputs, and transmission and distribution costs. No other costs, such as for investment, are taken into account. While consumer price subsidies account for the vast majority of subsidies to fossil fuels, there are numerous other subsidies, which are not captured by the price-gap approach. Therefore this measure should be considered a lower bound for the total economic cost of fossil-fuel subsidies and their impact on energy markets.

Data source: International Energy Agency (IEA): World Energy Outlook 2012: Fossil fuel consumption subsidies: International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook.

Environmentally related tax revenue

Environmentally related tax revenues are expressed in percentage of GDP. Environmentally related taxes include (i) energy products for transport purposes (petrol and diesel) and for stationary purposes (fossil fuels and electricity); (ii) motor vehicles and transport (one-off import or sales taxes, recurrent taxes on registration or road use and other transport taxes); (iii) waste management (final disposal, packaging and other waste-related product taxes); (iv) ozone-depleting substances and (v) other taxes.

Data source: OECD: Green Growth Indicators: GG_E41: Total environmentally related taxes, % GDP

Renewable electricity

Share of electricity generated by renewable power plants in total electricity generated by all types of plants. Renewable energy sources include the following types: hydroelectric, geothermal, solar, tides, wind, biomass, and biofuels.

Data source: The World Bank: Renewable electricity (% in total electricity output): World Bank and International Energy Agency.

Wealth Changes

Changes in wealth per capita

Change in wealth per capita is based on the net change in produced, human and natural assets per capita. This measure focuses on forms of wealth that are rival, in the sense that an increase in population results in there being less total wealth per person. For this reason, changes in wealth per-capita do not include air pollution or climate change damages. This indicator extends the more commonly known concept of “genuine savings”. Therefore, genuine savings (gross national saving minus depreciation of physical capital, plus education expenditure and minus depletion of natural resources) are additionally adjusted for population growth, since total tangible wealth is shared by the (changing) population.

Data source: The World Bank: Unpublished data.